Tiivistelmät

Vihapuhetta valemediassa

Hatespeech in false media

Qualitative and quantitative content analysis was used to find out how hate speech occurs in mv-lehti. The material was collected during randomly chosen period of time (13.2.– 26.2.2017) and included all published material (n = 525). The essential research material consisted of those writings from the larger corpus that contained hate speech (n = 131). The key topics of the study were the themes of hate speech, its construction and the expressions used to explicate it. The article also focuses to the motives and goals of mv-lehti. It was found out that one fourth of the data contained hate speech. The key themes were immigration, tolerance and Islam. The hate speech was targeted to refugees and people and organizations tolerant to immigration. Its goal was to create and strengthen negative mood and attitude against the immigration. Hate speech is created by using pejorative expressions and repetition which is typical for propaganda. According to this study mv-lehti deliberately spreads out hate speech to its readers. keywords: hate speech, fake media, immigration, mv-lehti.

Olemuksellisesti kivulias kokemus: eksistentiaalinen tunne ja psyykkinen kärsimys masennuksessa

Intrinsically painful experience: existential feeling and mental anguish in depression

In his memoirs of depression, the author William Styron compares suffering from depression to physical pain. In this article, I argue that Styron’s comparison must be taken literally: experience of depression essentially resembles suffering from physical pain. To this aim I will phenomenologically compare two autobiographical illness narratives, those of Jean-Luc Nancy and Piet Cornelius Kuiper. The first describes physical pain and discomfort, the latter severe depression. With the help of this comparison I will criticize an influential present account of the phenomenology of depression, Matthew Ratcliffe’s theory of so-called existential feelings. By criticizing Ratcliffe’s account and showing how, exactly, depression is like suffering from physical pain, a new perspective to the inner dynamics of depression experiences can be gained.

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